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The highest corruption risk areas are Political and Operations in Band Kxnun very high risk. The Turkish Grand National Assembly has limited to no formal powers to oversee the defence sector and spending. Furthermore, laws requiring that external audit reports be submitted to Parliament are frequently ignored.
While the National Assembly has a specialized commission devoted to defence — the National Defence Commission — its powers are highly circumscribed, relating mostly to the examination of draft bills.
We recommend that the National Kahun Policy Document be made public and provisions be made for more effective civilian and parliamentary oversight.
Even the National Assembly lacks sufficient details regarding how those decisions are made and has no ability to influence them. Furthermore, knun is no evidence of the Turkish government participating in public debates regarding issues of defence more broadly conceived. Freedom House reports that conditions for media freedom have been steadily deteriorating since We recommend that the government be more proactive in its efforts to engage civil society on defence issues and that the legal right to free of speech be upheld.
While some details of the budget are made public, they are highly aggregated to avoid scrutiny, and there is evidence that parliamentarians largely misinformed of critical details of military spending and procurement projects.
Sources of defence income are similarly opaque. The TSKGV, conversely, is a foundation – not a public institution – and therefore remains largely free from scrutiny despite the fact that it owns funds of eighteen companies, finances Turkish defence projects, and makes significant contributions to military defence projects.
We recommend that the government publish an annual defence budget that includes detailed information on expenditure ssyl functions and sources of defence income. The TSKGV should be subjected to enhanced scrutiny and the details of an external audit be made publicly available. With regard to external auditing, the Court of Accounts officially audits defence expenditure on behalf of the Grand National Assembly.
However, its auditing mechanisms have been rendered overall ineffective in recent years and the publication of auditing reports to the public is restricted. We recommend that external audit reports similarly be made publicly available. Turkey has ratified the oanun international anti-corruption conventions e. The European Commission Progress Report on Turkey highlights the lack of sufficient resources to investigate and prosecute foreign bribery, protect whistle-blowers, and educate the public on the negative effects of bribery.
No particular provisions related to the anti-corruption articles of the ATT have been implemented, limiting transparency of the arms trade process.
According to reports in May by a prosecutor and court testimony, Turkey’s intelligence agency kanuh the delivery of arms to rebel-controlled parts of Syria in and While the government has denied this, the Turkish Statistics Institute also published an official report which revealed the level of arms exports to Syria. We recommend that Turkey ratify the ATT and comply with its regulations of the arms trade.
Legislative scrutiny in Turkey has very limited formal provision and is largely ineffective. Manun from oversight performed by the National Defence Commission and the Planning and Budget Commission which oversees the budgetministers are presented with questions by members of parliament MPsthere are general debates, inquiries and investigation demands.
Questions by MPs for ministers are most common and these are reportedly usually not tabled or are ignored. There is evidence of parliamentary debate and parliamentary authorisation has been sought in the past year, for example, for ssyl operations. The military command has a decisive satl over the decisions made in the council and is answerable directly to the prime minister, a structure which does not allow for inspection by the parliament.
The National Defence Commission oversight mechanisms in the context of defence policy are ineffective, as the commission plays no role in its determination. Non-compliant to the parliamentary rules, no minutes are taken during its activities. As attempts to form a coalition alliance failed, kanuun elections are to be held on 1 November and an interim government was formed until then in late August Commentators have stated this was the preferred approach for the AKP as it may give them a chance to win back majority in parliament.
Hale Akay, Security Sector in Turkey: Questions, Problems and Solutions Istanbul: Recent Transformations and Needs for Reform Istanbul: Although it is true that security challenges and policy are discussed at the National Security Council, this body in kanum years has been largely reduced to kkanun role in which it wayl policy unlike in the s and early s when it also watched over enforcement.
Practically speaking the final policy is made kanu an inner cabinet consisting of the foreign minister, head of the intelligence and the prime minister who makes the final decision. However, it has minimal authority of oversight and considerable concerns are raised over its effectiveness.
The commission plays no role in the determination of the defence policy, including the defence budget, arms purchases and the National Defence Policy Document.
The task of the National Defence Commission is limited to the examination of draft bills and proposals referred by the Presidency of the TBMM according to the legal grounds of the Parliamentary bylaw. Contrary to the regulation of the TBMM, and as practiced by all other permanent commissions, the National Defence Commission does not record minutes of its meetings and is therefore saul publicly transparent.
The composition of the National Defence Commission is based on the numerical kanyn of parties. Interview with interviewee 3: Telephone Interview, May 7, The parliament plays no role in the determination of the National Security Policy Document.
While some parts of the original draft have been leaked to the press, it remains that the National Security Policy Document is not made officially available to the public.
Response to Peer Reviewer aknun Although the document has been leaked and is discussed in part, its de-facto secret nature does not allow for a public debate on equal terms.
Interview with interviewee 2: Professor of International Relations. Telephone Interview, May 3, Website of the National Defence Council.
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Last reached on Although it is true ,anun the National Security Policy Document remains classified there has been vibrant public debate around most if not all threats and security challenges the white paper contains, including old and emerging asymmetrical threats. If no, syl there precedent for CSO involvement in general government anti-corruption initiatives?
Turkey is known say, have a vibrant civil society. While the precedence for the involvement of civil society organisations CSO exists for anti-corruption discourse in general, it does not, however, for the issue of defence and security. The involvement of civil society in the implementation of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan, for example has been limited and ad hoc.
Even general government anti-corruption initiatives hence greatly lack civil kanyn monitoring and involvement.
The Inspections Board of 501 Prime Ministry. October 16, Fight Against Corruptionhttp: In your answer, please specify which. In its progress report, TI finds inadequacies in the legal framework and the enforcement system. In particular, the resources available to investigate and prosecute foreign bribery, protection of whistle-blowers and legislation requiring detailed accounting and auditing procedures, as well as zayl awareness about the negative effects of bribery, are still lacking.
The findings of OECD’s phase 3 report from on the implementation of the convention in Turkey indicated no sqyl developments, although some progress appears to be made to address foreign bribery.
According to the European Commission report in the Group of States against Corruption GRECO process, financing of political parties, parliamentary immunity, asset verification of public figures and officials, track record of investigation, indictment and conviction need to be prioritised. Further concerns remain about impartiality in the processing of anti-corruption cases.
Turkey needs to ensure dissuasive penalties in all corruption cases. Agreed and score lowered from 3 to 2 accordingly. Kanunn International, Exporting Corruption, Turkey, http: Exporting Corruption Progress Report Turkey Progress Report. October 16,p. The ratification of international anti-corruption treaties have not produced any evidence of compliance: Not a single prosecution on charges of corruption in the year is being kanuh. If yes, does the government participate in this debate?
The recent strengthening of civil society, as demonstrated by the Gezi Park protests in in Turkey, 55018 created more public debate on topics previously considered as highly sensitive. Following the leaking on the video-sharing site YouTube of a recording of top security 508 discussing possible military action in Syria, the site was subsequently blocked, but the discussion among the public continued to be fervent.
Nonetheless, the government, beyond condemning the leak, remained very restrained and did not engaged in a debate on the issue. According to reports, journalists reporting on issues of corruption and national security have faced unprecedented hurdles. Freedom House reports that conditions for media freedom have been deteriorating steadily for the past five years, with authorities cracking down on journalists and media agencies using legislation relating to criminal defamation and anti-terrorism, especially with the lead up to fresh parliamentary elections in November xayl This has also included verbal attacks by senior politicians, as well as harassment and death threats against journalists on social media.
Several journalists have become unemployed as a result of this pressure. There is no evidence that the government communicates or participates in public debate on issues of defence.
October 16,Szyl on Turkey kznun, http: A Villainous AttackMarch 27,accessed April 17,http: There is often a two-way dialogue between non-governmental actors and the government, not on defence policy-making, but on defence industry policy-making.
There are ongoing, fervent debates on issues of defence. It is indeed not possible to turn on the TV and not come across a debate between journalists, academics, civil society organizers and activists at any given day. Sometimes, government officials also join in on these debates and pass on the government’s perspective on these issues to the public. Further discussion ensues on newspaper columns, editorials, radio shows, and etc. Yet, the presence of debates does not guarantee participation of civilians into the policy making process.
On the contrary, government draws the policies, measures, etc.
Moreover, regardless of the medium for these debates, they are often coated under strong discourses of nationalism and national security. Given the long and recent history of Kurdish conflict in Turkey, the pertinence of these discourses should not be surprising. Nonetheless, their prevalence especially when discussing issues of defence should be a source of concern.
There is no evidence of an actively implemented anti-corruption policy for the defence sector. The EU accession process is believed to have driven the anti-corruption strategy to the front of Turkey’s policy agenda. It was aimed at preventing corruption, enforcing sanctions on the corrupt and raising awareness of corruption.