Download Citation on ResearchGate | Antibacterial activity of Peganum harmala | Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum. Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Peganum harmala seeds were tested (in vitro) for their antibacterial activity. examine the antibacterial activities of Peganum harmala extracts on the Key words: Antimicrobial effect, Biofilm, Peganum harmala, Pathogenic bacteria.
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Zygophyllaceae is one of the most famous medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Iran. The aim of this study was to consider antibacterial effects of the methanolic extract of different parts of P.
Antibacterial properties of methanolic extract of mentioned parts were assessed by disc diffusion method. Active extract was fractioned using Thin Layer Chromatography; also their synergism activity in combination with synthetic pegaanum was evaluated. Among the evaluated parts of P. Antibcterial effect of leaf part was moderate while stem and flower extracts showed relatively poor activity. Antibacterial activity of root extract against most of the tested Gram positive bacteria was better than seed extract.
Tested against Gram negative bacteria the obtained results were inconsistent. TLC Thin Layer Chromatography results revealed that seed and root extracts were different in terms of nature and content of their constituents. Furthermore, these two extracts showed an excellent stability to temperature and pH treatment. Also, the seed and root extracts showed synergism in combination with novobiocin, colistin and carbenicillin. Nowadays, bacterial infections especially those caused by multi-drug resistant MDR bacteria have become one of the great challenges for modern healthcare.
Therefore, discovering new antibacterial compounds with improved activity is necessary. Since the ancient time, the idea of finding healing powers in plants has been noteworthy. Plants produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that in many cases, these substances act as defense mechanisms against predation by herbivores, microorganisms and insects; also similar substances can be produced by plants as a part of their normal growth and development or in response to stress Mirjana et al.
Zygophyllaceaethat is also called Harmal, Suryin Rue, is a perennial, bushy, and wild-growing flowering plant with short creeping root which may grow to cm high Shamsa et al. It’s native to semi-arid rangeland, steppe area and sandy soils Mahmoodian et al. This plant has been considered for the treatment of a variety of human ailments, such as lumbago, asthma, colic, jaundice and as a stimulant emmenagogue Bukhari et al.
The most pharmacological active compounds of P. There are various reports that P. Also, it has been reported that this plant had antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects Shonoudam et al. However, a study with focusing on antibacterial activity of different parts of P.
The objective of the present study was to assess the antibacterial property of the methanol extract from different parts of P.
Antimicrobial Activity of Peganum Harmala L. on Streptococcus mutans Compared to % Chlorhexidine
Different parts of P. Sample collection was done in April for leave and stem, in May for flower, in June antibacteeial seed and in September for root. The leaf, flower, seed and stem were shade dried at room temperature for ten days while the pegamum was shade dried for twenty days.
These mentioned parts were ground to a fine powder. The powder 1 g was extracted using 10 ml of methanol-distilled water solution 8: This process was repeated for three times. Then, solvent removed by evaporation Darabpour et al. A total of thirteen bacteria were selected for this study.
Gram positive bacterial species were Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereusBacillus pumilusStaphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisListeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes. Gram negative bacterial species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brucella melitensisProteus mirabilisSalmonella typhiEscherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These species were originally isolated from clinical specimens and identified by standard biochemical reactions based on morphological and biochemical characters according to the methods described in Bergey’s manual for systematic bacteriology Garrity et al.
Antibzcterial characteristics were Gram stain, pigmentation, motility and utilization of different carbon and nitrogen sources and so on. The turbidimetry of the suspension was adjusted to the McFarland 0. At first, a total of 0. The lawn culture was prepared by sterile cotton swab and allowed to remain in contact for 1 min.
The sterile filter paper discs 6 mm diameter Cermelli et al. This experiment was carried out in duplicate. All of ahrmala synthetic antibiotic discs were prepared from Difco.
In the tube dilution assay, standard bacterial suspension and different concentrations of extract 0. The first tube in the above series without sign of visible growth was considered as the MIC. The least concentration that inhibited colony formation on agar was considered as MBC for the extract. To determine the synergistic effect of the most effective parts of P.
Finally, the result of these treatments was found by measurement of the inhibition zone against one of the most important human pathogenic bacterium. The methanolic extracts of the most effective parts of P. The separated components were visualized under visible and ultraviolet light and nm.
Also, the retardation factor R f values of the spots were determined. On the basis of the obtained results that are shown in Figures Fig. Increasing the antibacterial activity of the different parts of P. Among Gram positive bacteria, S. Antibacterial activity of the root extract against tested Bacillus species and S.
Moreover, the seed extract of P. The flower, leaf and stem extracts of P. Among the used parts of P. All of the tested clinical bacteria were MDR strains. Also, all of the tested bacteria were resistant to colistin. Considering antibacterial activity of the different parts of P. Also, these values for seed extract against E.
Moreover, MIC values for seed and root extracts against B. Based on the results from pH treatment Figure 7 Fig. The observed zone of inhibition after treatment of the seed extract with pegaunm different temperature was equal to untreated extract 20 mm Figure 8 Fig.
In general, antibacterial activity of these two extracts was not considerably affected after temperature and pH treatment. As we can see in Figures 9A and B Fig.
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Harmalq spots are more intensive in one extract comparing with other extract. In general, the obtained results from TLC revealed that these two parts of P.
The results of the combination of seed and root extracts of P. Combination of seed and root extract with novobiocin against E. Synergistic effect of seed extract in combination with novobiocin against E.
Furthermore, the observed synergism of root barmala with colistin against E. Combination of the root extract of P. Meanwhile, the seed and root extract in combination with carbenicillin showed a relatively weak synergistic activity against MRSA.
In recent years, an explosive spread of MDR bacterial pathogens has become a serious concern worldwide in terms of public health and economic effects. Medicinal plants have been shown to be a potential source of pharmaceutical natural products. The comparison between pharmaceutical effect of different parts of a medicinal plant can give a good vision for accomplishing pganum study with more efficiency.
In this study, for the first time we have attempted to compare antibacterial activity of the different parts of P. Each of the used parts of P. Among the evaluated different parts of P.
The seed and root are known as reservoir parts in plants, so, it is very likely that these parts served as arsenal of the secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity in P. Based on the obtained results, the root extract has a better antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria except Har,ala.
Thin Layer Chromatography can justify this difference, because the TLC results for antibacterrial and root extract showed that these extracts contain several bands with different density or even some bands exist in one extract that we have not been able to find in another one.
So, the content of each of the constituents and nature of constituents for these two extracts can be the determinant factors in their antibacterial mechanisms. Unlike other Gram positive bacteria, L. K 1 which has been reported previously Arshad et al.
Antibacterial effect of active extracts against K. For instance, pH stability is important in the treatment of brucellosis, one of the most important factors for the treatment of brucellosis is that antibacteriaal antibiotic should be able to act under acidic condition pH 5 in phagolysosomes of macrophages because brucellae grow and replicate in this pH value Akova et al. Thus, considering antibacterial activity of the seed and root extracts of P. Nowadays, development of bactericidal agents against MRSA as the most important causative agent of nosocomial infections is valuable so antibacterial activity of seed and root extract of P.
Our results indicate that crude extract of P. In general, combination therapy such as one resulted from synergism between leganum and plant extract can be used to as new choice for treatment of infections caused by MDR pathogens, to expand antibacterial spectrum, to prevent emergence of MDR pathogens and to minimize the possible toxic effects Aiyegoro et al. Also, synergism between plant extract and synthetic antibiotics peganmu develop standardization of herbal medicine for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.
Unlike the results that are shown in Figures 1 Fig. Colistin is an antibiotic that affects the cell membrane of bacteria. So, it is likely that the active phytochemicals, which exist in root extract, interfere with cell-wall petidoglycan synthesis in bacteria more than seed extract and finally resulted in increasing of the access of colistin to the cell membrane, the outcome of this event is increasing the synergistic effect.
On the other hand, the active efflux pump in E. So, may these extracts interfere with this pump and assumed as resistance modifying agents McKeegan et al.
So far, several alkaloids with pharmaceutical activity including harmine, harmane, harmalol, harmaline, vasicine, vasicinon and peganine have been obtained from the various parts of this plant Fathiazada et al.
It has been reported that harmane as a highly aromatic planar alkaloid exerts its antibacterial activity through interchalate with DNA Cowan, [ 12 ]thus, this antibacterial mechanism must be considered for active extract of P.