Orthognathic surgery); also known as corrective jaw surgery or simply jaw surgery, is surgery designed to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to. Faculty of Dental Medicine Al-Azhar UniversityOrthognathic surgery is the Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) has a wide range of. Mandibular osteotomies in Orthognathic Surgery Mandibular Recently good stability after BSSO is also shown by polylactate bone plates and.

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Operating on the upper jaw requires surgeons to make incisions below both eye sockets, making it a bilateral osteotomy, enabling the whole upper jaw, along with the roof of the mouth and upper teeth, to move as one unit. Hullihen and the origin of orthognathic surgery.

Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy

Modifications in the sagittal osteotomy of the mandible. The bony segments are stabilized with titanium plates; no fixation binding of the jaw necessary.

The risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve is a significant consideration when performing a BSSO. It is most frequently attributable to prolonged immobility that results in fibrosis and atrophy of the muscle and connective tissue of the masticatory system.

Orthognathic surgery – Wikipedia

A cuff of tissue should be preserved medial to the incision to facilitate closure. Orthognathic surgery bsdo a well established and widely used treatment option for insufficient growth of the maxilla in patients with an orofacial cleft.

A bilateral bseo split osteotomy BSSO is a surgery aimed at correcting a lower jawbone that is too short or too long. This procedure is quite similar to a LeFort II osteotomy, except more facial bone has to sugery repositioned.

These blocks are infiltrated into the submucosa anteriorly in the buccal vestibule and along the ascending ramus. This procedure is used for the advancement movement forward or retraction movement backwards of the chin.

InDal Pont modified the lower horizontal cut to a vertical osteotomy on the buccal cortex between the first and the second molars, which allowed for greater contact surfaces and required minimal muscular displacement. Stabilization screws are used to support the jaw until the healing process is done.

BSSO is the classical surgical technique for increasing lower jaw length. Sirgery R, Obwegeser H.

The main goals of orthognathic surgery are to achieve a correct bite, an aesthetic face, and an enlarged airway. There are several determinants of the optimal modification for BSSO in an individual patient, including the position of the mandibular foramen lingualcourse of the inferior alveolar nerve in the mandible, presence of the mandibular third molars, and planned direction and magnitude of distal segment movement. M Lacy and Dr.


Address for correspondence Laura A. Surgical movements of the maxilla and mandible inherently alter the maxillary-mandibular dental occlusion, and as such, careful analysis of the dental models with the orthodontist is essential.

His anterior vertical cut was similar to Dal Pont’s. Relationship between mandible and maxilla. Now the mandible is placed in its desired position with the aid of the prefabricated splint and any intervening bone is removed if performing a mandibular setback.

The dental osteotomy allows surgeons to visualize the jawbone, and work accordingly. General anesthesia allows surgeons to perform dentofacial eurgery effectively without involuntary muscle movement or complaints about minor pain. A disproportionately grown upper or lower jaw causes dentofacial deformities. From here, the mandible can be moved either forwards or backwards. Cutting one bone is known as an osteotomywhile performing usrgery surgery on both jaws simultaneously is known as a bi-maxillary osteotomy cutting the bone of both jaws or a maxillomandibular advancement.

Mandible and maxilla osteotomies date to the s. When noted intraoperatively, the fixation should be revised; when noted in the postoperative srgery films should be obtained to assess for hardware function.

All of the cuts are then checked to ensure that they are complete through the cortex and down to cancellous bone. As the two fragments are split and this is noted, the inferior border should be recut.

The operative surgeon should be well versed in the history, anatomy, technical aspects, and complications of the bilateral skrgery split osteotomy to fully understand the procedure and to counsel the patient. Care must be taken as surtery not injure the inferior palatine artery.

Vertical osteotomy in the mandibular raml for correction of prognathism. The most common of the LeFort procedures, this procedure corrects problems such as a “gummy” smile, long face or overbite by repositioning the upper jaw. Guiding elastics can be placed intraoperatively or postoperatively following extubation. A periosteal elevator is used to dissect all of the tissue along the buccal surface of the ramus and the proximal mandibular body. Retrieved from ” https: Intraoperative serious hemorrhage is a rare complication during a BSSO.


When an impacted third molar must be removed at the time of surgery, care should be taken to not use excessive force.

Subperiosteal dissection continues along the internal oblique ridge inferior to the level of the occlusal plane to allow visualization of the medial aspect of the ramus. A small elevator is placed along the medial aspect of the ramus and is utilized to retract and protect the pedicle.

An important component of orthognathic surgery is the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy BSSOwhich is the most commonly performed jaw surgery, either with or without upper jaw surgery. Inmandible and maxilla bzso were effectively used to correct more extreme deformities like receding chins, and to relieve pain from temporomandibular joint disorder TMJ.

The surgery usually results in a noticeable change in the surgeey face; a psychological assessment is occasionally required to assess patient’s need for surgery and its predicted effect on the patient. Maintaining the surgical dissection subperiosteally and adequate retraction of soft tissue prevent minor intraoperative oozing and most cases of major hemorrhage. While correcting the bite is important, if the face is not considered, the resulting bone changes might lead to an unaesthetic result.

Proximal segment fractures occur most often as a result of failure to completely cut the inferior border; this results in a fracture line that propagates along the buccal side of the inferior border.

When a patient has a constricted oval shape maxillabut normal mandiblemany orthodontists request a rapid palatal expansion. If sliding backwards, the distal segment must be trimmed to provide room in order to slide the mandible backwards.

Photographs with the patient’s face in repose and while smiling should be obtained with the amount of incisal display noted with each. Since the modern era of screw fixation, the incidence of lingual nerve injury has declined and become an uncommon complication following a BSSO.

This surgerj has been cited by other articles in PMC. Skeletal stability and complications of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies and mandibular distraction osteogenesis: The osteotomes progress from anterior to posterior completing the cut.